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        热血玛法

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        Ottoman Empire (1299 - 1923)

        The Ottoman Empire (Ottoman Turkish: ???????? ???????? ???????????? Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osm?niyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanl? ?mparatorlu?u or Osmanl? Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.

        With conquests in the Balkans by Murad I between 1362 and 1389, the Ottoman sultanate was transformed into a transcontinental empire and claimant to the caliphate. The Ottomans overthrew the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) by Mehmed the Conqueror.

        During the 16th and 17th centuries, in particular at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a powerful multinational, multilingual empire controlling much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.

        With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. Following a long period of military setbacks against European powers, the Ottoman Empire gradually declined into the late nineteenth century. The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, with the imperial ambition of recovering its lost territories, but it collapsed and was dissolved by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I. This resulted in the emergence of the new state of Turkey in the Ottoman Anatolian heartland, as well as the founding of modern Balkan and Middle Eastern states.

        Ottoman Empire: List of Rulers.
        Reign / RuleFromToCoins Issued
        Osman Gazi (Osman I) 17 January 1299 29 July 1326
        Orhan Bey 10 August 1327 1362
        Murat Hüdavendig?r (Sultan Murad I) 1362 15 June 1389
        Beyaz?t Y?ld?r?m (Sultan Bayezid I) 19 June 1389 20 July 1402
        Süleyman ?elebi (pretender, first Sultan of Rumelia) 20 July 1402 17 February 1411
        ?sa ?elebi (pretender, Sultan of the Western Anatolian Territory) 1403 1406
        Mehmed ?elebi (pretender, Sultan of Anatolia) 1403 5 July 1413
        Musa ?elebi (pretender, second Sultan of Rumelia) 18 February 1411 5 July 1413
        I. Mehmed (Sultan Mehmed I) 5 July 1413 26 May 1421
        II. Murat (Sultan Murad II), first reign 26 May 1421 August 1444
        II. Mehmed (Sultan Mehmed II), first reign August 1444 September 1446
        II. Murat (Sultan Murad II), second reign September 1446 3 February 1451
        热血玛法II. Mehmed (Sultan Mehmed II) ,second reign 3 February 1451 3 May 1481
        II. Beyaz?t (Sultan Bayezid II) 3 May 1481 26 May 1512
        I. Selim (Sultan Selim I) 26 May 1512 22 September 1520
        I. Süleyman (Sultan Suleiman I) 30 September 1520 7 September 1566
        II. Selim (Sultan Selim II) 29 September 1566 21 December 1574
        III. Murat (Sultan Murad III) 22 December 1574 16 January 1595
        III. Mehmed (Sultan Mehmed III) 27 January 1595 20 December 1603
        I. Ahmed (Sultan Ahmed I) 21 December 1603 22 November 1617
        I. Mustafa (Sultan Mustafa I), first reign 22 November 1617 26 February 1618
        II. Osman (Sultan Osman II) 26 February 1618 19 May 1622
        I. Mustafa (Sultan Mustafa I), second reign 22 May 1622 10 September 1623
        IV. Murad (Sultan Murad IV) 10 September 1623 8 February 1640
        ?brahim (Sultan Ibrahim) 9 February 1640 8 August 1648
        IV. Mehmed (Sultan Mehmed IV) 8 August 1648 8 November 1687
        II. Süleyman (Sultan Suleiman II) 8 November 1687 22 June 1691
        II. Ahmed (Sultan Ahmed II) 22 June 1691 6 February 1695
        II. Mustafa (Sultan Mustafa II) 6 February 1695 22 August 1703
        III. Ahmed (Sultan Ahmed III) 22 August 1703 1 October 1730
        I. Mahmud (Sultan Mahmud I) 2 October 1730 13 December 1754
        III. Osman (Sultan Osman III) 13 December 1754 29 October 1757
        热血玛法III. Mustafa (Sultan Mustafa III) 30 October 1757 21 January 1774
        I. Abdülhamid (Sultan Abdul Hamid I) 21 January 1774 6 April 1789
        III. Selim (Sultan Selim III) 7 April 1789 29 May 1807
        IV. Mustafa (Sultan Mustafa IV) 29 May 1807 28 July 1808
        II. Mahmud (Sultan Mahmud II) 28 July 1808 1 July 1839
        Sultan Abdülmecid 1 July 1839 25 June 1861
        Sultan Abdülaziz 25 June 1861 30 May 1876
        V. Murad (Sultan Murad V) 30 May 1876 31 August 1876
        II. Abdülhamid (Sultan Abdul Hamid II) 31 August 1876 27 April 1909
        V. Mehmed (Sultan Mehmed V) 27 April 1909 3 July 1918
        VI. Mehmed (Sultan Mehmed VI) 4 July 1918 1 November 1922
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        Ottoman Empire: Details
        Official NameOttoman Empire
        From1299
        To1923
        FlagFlag of Ottoman Empire
        WikiSee Wikipedia page
        Ottoman Empire: Currencies Used
        CurrencyFromTo
        Ottoman Lira 1844 1922