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        England (1066 - 1707)

        The Kingdom of England was a state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

        In the 11th century, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms united by ?thelstan (r. 927–939) became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England, Denmark and Norway. The Norman conquest of England in 1066 led to the transfer of the English capital and chief royal residence from the Anglo-Saxon one at Winchester to Westminster and the City of London quickly established itself as England's largest town and principal commercial centre.

        The history of the kingdom of England from the Norman conquest of 1066 is conventionally divided into periods named after the ruling dynasty: Norman 1066–1154, Plantagenet 1154–1485, Tudor 1485–1603 and Stuart 1603–1714 (interrupted by the Interregnum of 1649–1660). Dynastically, all English monarchs after 1066 ultimately claim descent from the Normans; the distinction of the Plantagenets is merely conventional, beginning with Henry III as from that time, the Angevin kings became "more English in nature"; the houses of Lancaster and York are both Plantagenet cadet branches, the Tudor dynasty claimed descent from Edward III via John Beaufort and James VI and I of the House of Stuart claimed descent from Henry VII via Margaret Tudor.

        The completion of the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown. Edward III (r. 1327–1377) transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe; his reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament. From the 1340s, the kings of England also laid claim to the crown of France, but after the Hundred Years' War and the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses in 1455, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their claim and lost all their land on the continent, except for Calais. After the turmoils of the War of the Roses, the Tudor dynasty ruled during the English Renaissance and again extended their power beyond England proper, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542. Henry VIII oversaw the English Reformation, and his daughter Elizabeth I (r. 1558–1603) the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, establishing England as a great power and laying the foundations of the British Empire by claiming possessions in the New World.

        From the accession of James I in 1603, England was ruled in personal union with Scotland and Ireland by the Stuart dynasty. Under the Stuarts, the kingdom was plunged into civil war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy was restored in 1660, but the civil war established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament, although this concept was legally established only as part of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its successor state the United Kingdom, was in effect a constitutional monarchy. On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland united to form Great Britain.

        England: List of Rulers.
        Reign / RuleFromToCoins Issued
        King William the Conqueror 25 December 1066 9 September 1087
        King William II 9 September 1087 2 August 1100
        King Henry I 2 August 1100 1 December 1135
        King Stephen 22 December 1135 25 October 1154
        Empress Matilda (claimant) 7 April 1141 1148
        King Henry II 25 October 1154 6 July 1189
        King Richard I 6 July 1189 6 April 1199
        King John 6 April 1199 19 October 1216
        King Louis VIII of France (claimant) 21 May 1216 22 September 1217
        King Henry III 19 October 1216 16 November 1272 林东天气3
        King Edward I 20 November 1272 7 July 1307
        King Edward II 7 July 1307 25 January 1327
        King Edward III 25 January 1327 21 June 1377 1
        King Richard II 21 June 1377 30 September 1399
        King Henry IV 30 September 1399 20 March 1413
        King Henry V 20 March 1413 31 August 1422
        King Henry VI (first reign) 31 August 1422 4 March 1461
        King Edward IV (first reign) 4 March 1461 3 October 1470
        King Henry VI (second reign) 3 October 1470 11 April 1471
        King Edward IV (second reign) 11 April 1471 9 April 1483
        King Edward V 9 April 1483 26 June 1483
        King Richard III 26 June 1483 22 August 1485
        King Henry VII 22 August 1485 21 April 1509
        King Henry VIII 21 April 1509 28 January 1547 1
        King Edward VI 28 January 1547 6 July 1553
        Lady Jane Grey (claimant) 10 July 1553 19 July 1553
        Queen Mary I 19 July 1553 25 July 1554
        林东天气King Philip and Queen Mary 25 July 1554 17 November 1558
        Queen Elizabeth I 17 November 1558 24 March 1603
        King James I 24 March 1603 27 March 1625
        King Charles I 27 March 1625 30 January 1649
        Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell 16 December 1653 3 September 1658
        Lord Protector Richard Cromwell 3 September 1658 25 May 1659
        King Charles II 29 May 1660 6 February 1685
        King James II 6 February 1685 11 December 1688
        William and Mary 13 February 1689 28 December 1694
        King William III 28 December 1694 8 March 1702
        Queen Anne 8 March 1702 1 May 1707
        Royal Mint
        Royal Mint
        England: Details
        Official NameEngland
        FlagFlag of England
        WikiSee Wikipedia page
        Ireland, Lordship of 1171 1542
        Flag of Ireland, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of 1542 1800
        England: Currencies Used